Kaugnayan Program

Skyline College Theater, San Bruno

October 24, 2010

Pockets of cultural minorities still live in the style of their forbears in the hills and mountains throughout the Philippine Archipelago. The hillside and interior of Mindanao in the southern part of the Philippines are inhabited by non-Christian Filipino tribes whose culture and animistic beliefs predate both Islam and Christianity. Dance for them is a basic part of life, still performed essentially “for the gods”. As in most ancient cultures, and unlike the Muslim tribes in their midst, their dances are closely intertwined with ceremonials, rituals, sacrifice, and life.            

    The Budyong or conch shell is blown and Lem Lunay is chanted to call all to a celebration. In Agila, Mandayas mimic the movements of the eagle as it soars, hovers, swoops and flies against the wind. Blit B'laan is a courtship dance of the B’laan people of Davao del Sur in which the dancers mimic the behavior of forest birds in the mating season. Gambut is the T’boli’s dance interpretation of the movements and antics of the monkey. Karal kafi is the most popular in the bird dance tradition of the B’laan. The kafi bird is almost as legendary as the beautiful maidens who mimic them in dance. Taking inspiration from the male Kafi bird who spreads its awesome wings, strutting, leaping and transferring from branch to branch, the B’laan maiden dons her most expensive blouse and skirt, frames her face with several strands of colorful glass beads, mirrors, horsehair chains, and silk thread pompoms; and adds hundreds of small brass bells (saliyaw) on her girdle, arms, legs, ears and hair.


The coming of the Spaniards in the sixteenth century brought a new influence to Philippine life. A majority of the Filipinos were converted to Roman Catholicism. European cultural ideas spread and the Filipinos adapted and blended to meet the local conditions. In music and dance the waltz, polka, jota, fandango, and mazurka became “Filipinized”.

    El Mensaje de Amor is a message of love. Chotis, as called by the Ilocanos and Tagalogs or Escotis by the Visayans, is derived from the word Schottische, a common dance in Europe in the 19th century. The jumping, hopping and stamping movements of the dance was easily integrated into the Filipinos’ repertoire of dances and was popular at social gatherings during the time. Paso Doble or pasodoble, which means “double step” in Spanish, is a lively style of dance to duple meter march-like music. It actually originated in southern France, but is modeled after the sound, drama, and movement of the Spanish bullfight. Dahil Sa Isang Bulaklak, “Because of a Flower,” is a song emphasizing the endlessness of love. Las Panderetas de Amor is a version of the jota, which was among the most popular dances during the Spanish era. It was performed by the Spanish señoritas and caballeros in social gatherings. The Filipinos imitated and adapted this lively and delightful dance from Spain, combining Spanish and Filipino dance steps and music. In this version, the caballeros click loosely held bamboo castanets in time with the music as the señoritas play the panderetas, the Spanish word for tambourines. La Flor de Manila or “Flower of Manila” is a song about the sampaguita, a jasmine variety, the national flower of the Philippines. Ikaw or “You” is a popular OPM (Original Pilipino Music) love song. The Habanera, also known as danza or danza habanera, is a social dance that originated from Cuba. This dance first became popular in the town of Botolan, Zambales. During the early days, the Habanera Botoleña was performed in honor of a departing priest. In time, however, it lost that role and became more of a festival dance performed at weddings which includes a procession of the bride and groom’s parents, the bridesmaids, and groomsmen; and a solo performed by the newlyweds.


Deep in the south of the Philippines is the exotic island of Mindanao, with its strong Muslim flavor. This southern regions lies within the periphery of the great ancient Southeast Asian trade routes: Arabs, Hindus, Chinese, Persians, as well as merchants from other parts of Asia, traded wares at these southern ports. Of these people, nine Filipino tribes embraced Islam. In their dances, the Muslim exhibit the emphasis on the upper torso, the use of hands to express nuances of feeling, bent knees, and upturned toes. Muslim dances move with peculiar elasticity and almost serpentine suppleness; curves are emphasized in the apparently joint-less, back-turned hands, flexible arms and rounded posture of the body.

    Derived from the Maranao root word onor or professional, Kapagonor is played to welcome an important guest to a Maranao village. Mamayog Akun is a choral arrangement of a Muslim chant. The Kappa Malong Malong or Sambi sa Malong is a Maranao dance that displays the various ways of using and wearing the traditional tubular cloth called a malong. Sultana, a dance by the Sultan’s wife, is a version of pangalay. Pangalay is derived from the verb mangalay which means to dance. It can also refer to any traditional style of dance from Sulu performed during social gatherings and festive occasions. Pagkuntao is the art of self-defense in martial arts interpreted in dance.   Lalansay is the name for the handwoven decorative cloths that the dancers use in this dance. Also called vinta after the colorful vinta boats frequently seen on the Sulu Sea, the Pangalay Ha Pattong is another pangalay variant performed atop bamboo poles borne on the shoulders of two carriers. The couple balances on a pair of swaying bamboo poles to represent their ride on a vinta.  Also known as the Princess Dance or the Royal Maranao Fan Dance, Singkil is based on the Maranao interpretation of the epic “Darangen” which was written in the 14th century. It is about Princess Gandingan, who is trapped in the middle of a forest, when the diwatas or nymphs of the forest cause an earthquake. Clapping cris-crossed bamboo poles represent rolling rocks and falling trees which the Princess nimbly and undauntedly avoids in the dance. She is followed by a loyal umbrella-bearing slave. Prince Bantugan finally comes to rescue her as dancers wave fans called apir to represent auspicious winds.    


Intermission (15 min)



The Mountain region of Northern Luzon is known by the poetic term, “Philippine skyland”. Inhabiting this rugged terrain are six ethnolinguistic tribes generally known as Igorots or Mountain People. These mountain tribes are the Ibaloy, Kankanai, Ifugao, Kalinga, Apayao, and Bontoc. They share enough common socio-cultural traits to constitute a loose homogenous group. They hold common religious beliefs, generally animistic, and make propitiatory offerings to household gods called anitos, in the course of which dancing occurs. Among these mountain people, dance continues to be an expression of community life that animates the various rituals and ceremonies. It serves for self-edification of the performers and entertainment for the spectators. They dance to appease their ancestors and gods, to cure ailments, to insure successful war-making activities, or to ward off bad luck or natural calamities. They dance to congregate and to socialize, for general welfare and recreation, and as an outlet for repressed feeling. They dance, as well, to insure bountiful harvests, favorable weather, and to mark milestones in the lifecycle of birth, wedding, and death.

    Mangalop demonstrates the different tools – spear, axe, bow and arrow and blow gun – that Igorot hunters use for hunting. Ragragsakan takes its inspiration from the sight of Kalinga maidens balancing labba baskets on their heads snaking through the dikes of terraces and skipping through breaks in the path. Dalilian is a call to gather for a feast. Salip is a Kalinga wedding dance in which the groom offers the bride the protection and comfort of his blanket. He simulates the movements of a rooster at love play, aspiring to attract and seize his love. Banaue was named after Banawol, a chicken-eating hawk in the region. Dancers mimic the movements of the hawk and don clothing depicting its bright plumage in this festival dance.


Life in the rural Philippines today, as in the past, is comparatively simple and pleasant. In a country abundantly blessed by nature, there is much to celebrate in dance, song, and story. Dances of the rice-growing countryside and fishing villages express the people’s joy in work, their love for music and gaiety, their thanksgiving for a good harvest or catch, or their pleasure in simply singing a song for a beautiful day.

    O Ilaw is a classic Filipino love song in the form of a harana or serenade in which a man compares a woman to a star in the dark sky. He asks her to open her window and look out at him. Sayaw Sa Pagibig is a courtship dance from Bulacan which portrays a young man’s feelings towards a young woman he adores though his simple yet graceful movements. In Pandanggo Sa Ilaw or dance with oil lamps from Mindoro, the female dancer gracefully balances three lighted tinghoys or oil lamps, one on her head and one on the back of each hand. Oasioas in Pangasinan means “swinging”.   After a good catch, fishermen of Lingayen would celebrate by drinking wine and by dancing, swinging and circling a lighted oil lamp wrapped in transparent and porous cloth or fishnet. A favorite dance of the mountain people of the barrios of Panitan and Loctugan, Capiz, Tinolabong imitates the movement of the tolabong bird, a species of heron with a long neck, long legs, a long tapering bill, large wings and soft white feathers. These birds are commonly seen riding serenely on the back of carabaos picking ticks, flies, mosquitoes and other insects off its back. From Bantigue of Masbate, Bicol is Lapay Bantigue, a dance imitating the flight, swoops, dives and glides of the lapay or seagull.

    Sa Libis Ng Nayon is a song describing the beauty and serenity of life in the countryside. Maglalatik is a mock-war dance depicting a fight between the Moros and the Christians over the prized latik or coconut meat residue. The dance, originally performed in Biñan, Laguna, is also performed as a tribute to the patron saint of farmers, San Isidro de Labrador. The men use harnesses of coconut shells positioned on their backs, chests, hips, and thighs which they hit in rhythm with the music. Binasuan which means "with the use of a drinking glass" is a colorful and lively dance from Bayambang in Pangasinan province. It shows-off the balancing skills of the dancers as they carefully and gracefully maneuver half-filled glasses of rice wine. Sayaw Ed Tapew Na Bangko is native to the barrio of Pangapisan, Lingayen, Pangasinan. It demands skill from its performers who must dance on top of a bench roughly six inches wide. Tinikling imitates the movements the Tikling bird, a small long-legged, long-necked, heron-like bird, as it walks, skips and hops over grasses and small branches in the rice fields or tries to avoid traps set by the farmers.   Pistahan is a celebration and thanksgiving for life’s abundant blessings.  

Barangay Artists

Aquino, Christine

Aquino, Jessica

Battad, Gina

Cayabyab, Joel

Cayabyab, Zheena

Conclara, Rommel

Cortez, Celine

Eng, Lauren

Eng, Matthew

Eng, Timothy

Estrellado, Tiffany

Fernandez, Richard

Fonacier, Paolo

Hom, Garett

Jiang, Elliot

Manubag, Stella

Mauricio, Aikenne

Peralta, Jemelee

Piros, Emily

Presa, Crystle

Ramirez, Isis

Requesto, Nicko

Requesto, Kimberly

Ronquillo, Rona

Salas, Jan

Santos Delaney, Geraldine

Segismundo-Jiang, Lala

Servantes, Diana

Tiña, Allan

Tioseco, Jonathan

St. Thomas More Church 8PM Choir

Buenaventura, Roel

Cruz, Pinky

Dela Rueda, May

Del Rosario, Joseph

Fung, Vincent

Gosalvez, Cristina

Manalang, Jeffrey

Panelo, Guia

Sarmiento, Tracy

Segismundo-Jiang, Lala

Tango, Mildred




Production Staff: Bonifacio Valera (Executive Producer), Liza Erpelo (Production Administrator), Cristina Gosalvez (Production Consultant), Jonathan Tioseco (Production Assistant); Rona Ronquillo, Aikenne Mauricio (Administrative Assistant); Marketing/Publicity: Liza Cancino, Rona Ronquillo, Leon Palad, Bonifacio Valera Sr., Nelly Sarmiento, Gina Battad, Filipino Student Union (FSU), Barangay Dance Company (BDC) Kababayan Dance Troupe (KDT), and Caroline Ocampo (Public Information Officer, Skyline College); Tickets: Lala Segismundo-Jiang, Bonifacio Valera Sr., Soledad A. Francisco, Gean Gapayao, Estelle Oleresisimo, Zeny Wong, St. Emydius Fil-Am Unity Club, Gina Battad, BDC, KDT; Souvenir Program: Cristina Gosalvez, A. Philip Randolph Institute-SF Chapter, Michael Lapus & FedEx-Kinko’s; Poster and Flyer Design: Nerinna Valera; Company Photography: Nerinna Valera, Jonathan Tioseco; Reception: Janet Illiscupidez, Nitz and Romy Bartolome, Danny & Estellie Bernal, Elnie Estacio, Eleonor Lasola, Raffy & Pat Rimando, Ledy Tolentino, Tessie Evelyn Velicaria; Jubilee Choir of Epiphany; Leon Palad; Bonifacio Valera, Sr., Liza Cancino


Artistic Staff: Bonifacio Valera (Artistic Director), Vickie Hafalia (Dance Consultant), Manrique Cabaya (Guest Choreographer); Robert Lopez, ACPA Rondalla (Guest Musicians); Patricia Valera (Costume Design/Construction); Angel Ramos (Props Construction); Costume/Props/Accessories/Make-up Assistants: Christine Aquino, Jessica Aquino, Gina Battad, Joel Cayabyab, Zheena Cayabyab, Rommel Conclara, Richard Fernandez, Paolo Fonacier, Emily Piros, Crystle Presa, Kimberly Requesto, Nicko Requesto, Evan Reyes, Jan Salas, Lala Segismundo-Jiang, Allan Tiña, Jonathan Tioseco, Melly Fernandez, Rosalina Sarmiento, Louie & Gilda Segismundo (banig & zapatillas); Stage Manager: Cristina Gosalvez; Assitant Stage Manager: Karisa Plurad; Technical Advisor: Liza Erpelo; Technical Director: VJ Tolosa; Lights: Gabe Nuñez, Mikey Morales; Sound: Christine Aquino; Runner: Brendon Villanueva; Back Stage: Geraldine Veras, Ron Radoc, Rona Ronquillo; Rigging: Edward Stavick, Andrew Ramos; Front of House: English 104 AK (Fall 2009), Liza Cancino; Practice Venue: Fr. Ramon Zarate, S.D.B. & Gina Battad of Corpus Christi Church, Monsignor Labib Kobti, Lala Segismundo-Jiang & Elvira Garcia of St. Thomas More Church in San Francisco

From Skyline College: English 104 AK (Fall 2009); Filipino Student Union; Donna Bestock (Dean of Social Sciences/Creative Arts); Rakefet Avramovitz (Social Sciences/Creative Arts Division Assistant); Connie Beringer (Dean of Language Arts); Kathy Fitzpatrick (Language Arts Division Assistant); Joseph Morello, Jr. (Dean of PE/Athletics/Dance); Sandra Hatzistratis (PE/Athletics/Dance Division Assistant); Amory Cariadus (Coordinator of Student Activities); Associated Students of Skyline College (ASSC); Alan Ceccarelli (Theater Events Manager); Sandy Irber (Director of College Development, Marketing & Public Relations); Caroline Ocampo (Public Information Officer); Victoria P. Morrow, Ph.D. (President, Skyline College); Regina Stanback-Stroud (Vice President of Instruction); Lori Adrian (Vice President of Student Services); Reuben Juni, Uni-T Screen Printing and Design; Videographer: Jamison Boyer (JDB Creativity)


House: Nate Nevado (Advisor), Francis Vinas-Reyes (House Manager), Marijoy Angeles (Manager), Jonah Lu, Nolan Villamil (Box Office); Ushers: M.E. Urquico, Jade Campos, Melissa Pantilon, Francis Tavu, Robert Jimenez, Dante Casuga; Security: Jon Gulingan, Vince Angot, Simon Cabanero, Primo Rivera, Ryan Cutitta; Ticket Takers: Michael Mangaccat, Justin Morales; Programs: R.J. Gomez, Alawi Canlas

and to all our supporters, friends and family who made this production possible…

Maraming Salamat Po!